English Grammar And Writing

Declarative And Imperative Sentences

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One way to classify sentences is by function such as declarative, imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory sentences. In this lesson, you will learn about declarative and imperative sentences. You will learn the definitions and how to tell the difference.

The Role of a Sentence

Different workers in a company have different jobs to perform. Similarly, in written communication, different types of sentences have different jobs to perform. There are four different functions a sentence can have in English: declarative, imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory. Interrogative sentences are easy to recognize - they ask a question and end in a question mark (?). Exclamatory sentences are also easy - they express strong emotion and end in an exclamation point (!). Declarative and imperative sentences are harder to distinguish. Because they both can end with a period ( . ), punctuation doesn't provide a good clue. Let's take a closer look at these sentence types.

Declarative Sentences

A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period. You'll find in English that the vast majority of sentences are declarative, especially in written English. Declarative sentences can describe facts, express opinions, make arguments, or otherwise give information.

  • Ramona exercises every day.
  • Exercise is healthy.
  • Ramona's favorite exercise is biking.

Each of these sentences makes a statement that gives us information.

Most declarative sentences follow normal word order - that is, the subject comes before the verb. Remember, the subject is a noun or pronoun showing who or what the sentence is about. The verb is the word showing action or state of being.

  • Tania hates biking. (subject + verb = Tania + hates)
  • She runs once a week instead. (subject + verb = she + runs)

Imperative Sentences

An imperative sentence gives a command, gives instructions or makes a request. It often ends in a period, and occasionally it will end in an exclamation point if the command is very strong.

  • Measure two cups of flour.
  • Add a teaspoon of baking soda and stir.

Each of these sentences gives an instruction.

Imperative sentences are unique in that there is usually not a subject written in the sentence. Rather, the subject is the hearer or reader - the subject of the sentence is implied to be ''you.'' The entire imperative sentence is the predicate part of the sentence - the verb and its objects and modifiers.

  • (you) Please wash the car. (Request)
  • (you) Get out of here now! (Command)
Imperative

Distinguishing Between Declarative and Imperative Sentences

There are two questions we can ask when trying to decide if a sentence is declarative or imperative.

  1. What is the word order?
    If the sentence has the subject before the verb, it is probably declarative. If the sentence seems to have only a verb and its modifiers, but it makes sense to add ''you'' at the beginning, it is probably imperative.
  2. What is the sentence doing?
    If it is giving a direction, request, or command, it is imperative. If it is ''for your information,'' it is declarative.

Let's try a few sentences.

The temperature dropped fifteen degrees overnight.

  • What is the word order? The sentence is arranged with the subject, then the verb (temperature + dropped).
  • What is the sentence doing? It tells a fact for your information.
  • This sentence is declarative.

Put away your laundry before dinner.

  • What is the word order? The whole sentence is a verb with modifiers and objects. It could be prefaced by ''you'': (You) put away your laundry before dinner.
  • What is the sentence doing? It is giving instruction.
  • This sentence is imperative.

  Umbreen Aleem   Sunday, 29 Dec 2019   21 Views

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